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Chronology of 20th Century Afghan History


1901  Habibullah, son of Abdur Rahman, accedes
          peacefully to throne
1907  Visit of Habibullah to India
1911  Pan-Islamic nationalist Mahmud beg Tarzi
          established first intellectual periodical, Seraj-ul-
1914 First World War; Habibullah remains neutral in
         face  of call for Pan-Islamist Jihad against British
1919 February: Habibullah assassinated; son Ahamanullah
         takes throne.
         May: Attack on British India; Third Afghan War
         June: End of war after British aerial bombing of
         Kabul and Jalalabad
         August: Peace treaty allows Afghanistan
         independence from British in conduct of foreign
1921 Treaties with USSR and Turkey
1923 Pushtun tribal revolts new Khost due to
         Amanullah's reforms
         Establishment of Delegation Archeologique Francaise
         en Afghanistan (DAFA)
1925 Soviet troops occupy Utra Tagai island on Oxus
1926 Non-aggression treaty with USSR; Soviets
         withdraw from Utra Tagai
1927 Amanullah departs on world tour
1928 Amanullah promulgates further far-reaching
         westernising reforms
         Queen Soraya appears unveiled in public
         November: serious uprising near Jalalabad and
1929 January: Amanullah abdicates; brother
         Inayatullah King for three days before abdicating
         Tajik warlord Bacha Saqao takes throne in Kabul
         July: General Nadir Khan (descendant of Dost
         Mohammed) returns to Afghanistan and defeats
         Bacha Saqao; is declared King.
         Many of Amanullah's reforms rescinded
1932 Foundation of Kabul University
1933 Nadir Assassinated; 19 years old song Zahir Shah
         assumes throne; with his uncles as regents
1936 US representative to Tehran visits Kabul
1939 Second World War; Afghanistan remains neutral
1942 Diplomatic relations established with US
1944 Alliance with China
1946 Afghanistan joins the UN






1947 British withdrawal from India/Pakistan, tension
         with Pakistan over Durand Line
Treaty of friendship with India
Agreement with US for economic development
Inauguration of Helmand Dam Project
         Discovery of old fields near Sheberghan
Border incidents and riots in Kabul over
         Pushtunistan question
1956 Inauguration of Five-Year Plan with Soviet aid
Abolition of requirement to wear veil
         US president Eisenhower visits Kabul
1960 Salang Highway and tunnel started with Soviet aid
Borders close with Pakistan in Pushtunistan flare-
         up; economic crisis
Second Five-year Plan
1963 Kabul Kandahar Highway constructed with US aid
         February: Crisis trade protocol with USSR
         March: New administration formed with
         Mohammed Yusuf
         Resolution of Pushtunistan conflict and re-opening
         of borders
1964 Opening of Salang Highway
         Inauguration of Democratic constitution with
         bi-cameral parliament
1965 Democratic elections; including female suffrage
         Yusuf resigns; Prime Minister Mohammed
         Communist Nur Mahmmed Taraki founds
         people's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA)
1966 First female cabinet Minister, Kubra Nurzai
         Communist periodical, Khalq, founded by Taraki,
         later suppressed
1967 Maiwandwal resigns through ill-health; Nur Ahmad
         Etemadi becomes Prime Minister
         Inauguration of Supreme Court
         PDPA breaks into 'Khalq' faction under Taraki,
         and 'Parcham' under Babrak Karmal
1969 Disturbances at Kabul University
         Second Parliamentary election
1971 Afghanistan hit by server drought and famine
         Etemadi resigns after deadlock in legislature; Abdul
         Zahir becomes Prime Minister
1972 Abdul Zahir resigns after continuing difficulties in
         government; technocrat Musa Shafiq appointed
         Prime Minister